Music Halls became popularizedThe “music hall” in Victorian England had its origins in entertainment provided in saloons of public houses. These venues replaced earlier semi-rural amusements provided at traditional fairs and suburban pleasure gardens such as Vauxhall Gardens and the Cremorne Gardens.
Main themes of Victorian ArtVictorian art was shown in the full range of artistic developments, from the development of photography to the application of new technologies in architecture.
artists focused on painting directly from nature, thereby producing colorful, detailed, and almost photographic representations. The painters sought to transform Realism with typological symbolism, by drawing on the poetry and literature of William Shakespeare and their own contemporaries.
Much of the Victorian art created during the 19th
The Pickwick PapersCharles Dickens publishes his first novel, The Pickwick Papers. This sparked his widespread success and instant popularity.
First photograph takenby Joseph Nicophore niepce
First Reform Bill passedFirst Reform Bill extends suffrage to men who own property worth ten pounds or more in annual rent. Beginning of the Industrial Revolution movement begins, and growth of cities and factories takes off. This enhanced class system and devised a working class.
The AlamoMexico defeats Texans at the Alamo and the US battles for the annexatin of Texas.
Victoria becomes QueenVictoria is named Queen of Great Britain and Ireland.
Oliver TwistCharles Dickens publishes Oliver Twist
The DialMargaret Fuller helps found The Dial, an American Transcendentalist journal that publishes Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson
Wedding DayQueen Victoria marries her German cousin, Prince Albert.
Dead Souls ComicNikolai Gogol’s comic Dead Souls shines light on the plight of Russian surfs.
Great Britain ColonizesBritain signs treaty to make Hong Kong a British colony, Chinese call it the first of a series of “Unfair Treaties”
First volume of Ruskin’s Modern Painter’s
William WordsworthWilliam Wordsworth becomes poet laureate, which is a poet appointed for life by a British monarch as a member of the royal household.
A Christmas CarolCharles Dickens publishes A Christmas Carol, which restored traditional holiday spirit.
Massive ImmigrationMassive immigration begins due to a Potato Famine in Ireland. Nearly one million die from disease and famine.
Barrett’s courtship sonnetsElizabeth Barrett writes poems during her courtship with Robert Browning. These poems include sonnets that were written during the couple’s elopement.
Ten Hour ActTen Hour Act is put into effect. This act limits the number of hours women and children can work.
The Pre- Raphaelites emergedThe Pre-Raphaelites were a group of English artists who rejected what they considered as the effete symbolism and lack of reality of paintings dating from the 16th-century European Renaissance. They aimed to revert to what they saw as the directness and sincerity of medieval painting and painted more nature and portraits. The most important artists of the movement were Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais.
The Communist ManifestoKarl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto.They argue that increasing mistreatment of industrial workers will eventually lead to a rebellion in which Capitalism is overthrown.
Traditional Folk MusicThe 1850’s gave way to traditional folk songs.Subject matter became more contemporary and humorous, and accompaniment was provided by larger house-orchestras as increasing affluence gave the lower classes more access to commercial entertainment and to a wider range of musical instruments, including the piano.
Poet Laureate AppointedAlfred, Lord Tennyson becomes poet laureate.
The Scarlett LetterNathaniel Hawthorne publishes The Scarlett Letter
Invention of the instantaneous photographyWilliam Fox Talbot
Japan opens trade to the west
“Last of England”The famous Victorian artist, Ford Madox Brown, painted the ‘Last of England’. It shows a family emigrating, possibly to Australia, to find work.
Blackwood’s MagazineMary Ann Evans (using her pen name, George Eliot) publishes stories in Blackwood’s Magazine
Jews allowed in ParliamentLionel de Rothschild becomes the first Jewish man allowed to serve in Parliament.
Origin of SpeciesCharles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
“Where the Bee Sucks”Sullivan wrote “Where the Bee Sucks” for Shakespeare’s The Tempest .The music for this play was his graduation piece at the Leipzig Conservatorium.
US Civil War beginsThe US Civil War begins. Also in this year, the Russian serfs were emancipated and Prince Albert died of typhoid.
Les MiserablesVictor Hugo publishes Les Miserables, a french novel that is considered one of the greatest novels of the nineteenth century.
Emancipation ProclamationThe slaves are freed by Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.
Alice in WonderlandLewis Carroll publishes Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.
Second Reform ActThe Second Reform Act extended suffrage to nearly all industrial working men. This doubled the amount of voters in England.
Little WomenLouisa May Alcott publishes Little Women. Her novel was loosely based on Alcott’s childhood experiences with her three sisters.
Debtor’s Prison abolishedIn England, the Debtor’s Prison was abolished. This same year, the Suez canal was created.
War and PeaceIn Russia, Leo Tolstoy publishes the text War and Peace. This novel is the study of early 19th-century Russian society and is regarded as one of the world’s greatest novels.
Individulaity in the Music IndustryBy the 1870s the songs had cut themselves free from their folk music roots, and particular songs also started to become associated with particular singers, often with exclusive contracts with the songwriter, just as many pop songs are today.
Trial by Jury operettaIn 1875, the year Trial by Jury, the first of Arthur Sullivan’s well known operettas, opened in London, most people already knew him well for his ballads and related songs.
Victoria named Empress of IndiaAs the British expire continued its expansion, Queen Victoria was named Empress of India.
Zulu War beginsThe British begin a war with South Africa that becomes known as the Zulu War.
Adventures of Huckleberry FinnMark Twain writes Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Sherlock HolmesArthur Conan Doyle writes A Study in Scarlet, introducing Sherlock Holmes to the readers.
Establishment of Women’s Franchise LeagueThe Women’s Franchise League was created and the battle for women’s suffrage began.
“In a Persian Garden.”Liza Lehmann, first a leading singer and then an important composer, likewise made her name from the success of her song cycle “In a Persian Garden.”
Radium is discoveredMarie and Pierre Currie discover Radium.
Wizard of OzL. Frank Baum publishes The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. This is a story about a young girl named Dorothy Gale and her adventures in the Land of Oz. It has been widely translated and is one of the best-known stories in American popular culture.
Queen Victoria Dies
The Victorian EraThe Victorian Era spans over the 69 years of Queen Victoria’s rule. The era is characterized by prosperity and reform.